How Peptide Bonds, and Peptide Synthesis Work

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Peptides are made up of a small chain of amino acids that isn’t long enough to be considered a full protein.

When the number of amino acids is less than 50, these molecules are called peptides while longer chains are called proteins. Peptides and proteins exist in all living cells and are responsible for many biochemical activities, such as hormones and antibiotics.

The peptide bond always involves a single covalent link between the carboxyl (oxygen-bearing carbon) of one amino acid and the amino nitrogen of a second amino acid. In the formation of a peptide bond from two amino acids, a molecule of water is removed.

Small peptides with fewer than about 10 constituent amino acids are called oli go peptides, and peptides with more than 10 amino acids are termed polypeptides. Compounds with molecular weights of more than 10,000 (50–100 amino acids) are usually termed proteins.


Organisms commonly contain noticeable quantities of low-molecular-weight peptides some ascending from proteins while others are synthesized directly. These molecules are odd in that they incorporate amino acids not found in proteins such as amino acids of the d-configuration.

Peptide synthesis has risen to the level of a well-defined skill in recent years. The advantage of peptide synthesis approaches is that besides having the ability to make peptides that are found in biological specimens, ingenuity and resourcefulness can be tapped to generate distinctive peptides to enhance a desired biological response or other result.

Peptides can be stored before reconstituting them in the refrigerator or in a safe place out of the light and at least at room temperature. Once the peptide has been reconstituted, the vial must be refrigerated and out of exposed light. The peptides amino acid chains are short so they will break down if not handled or stored properly.

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